Tips

Units of Measurement

Metric units

Length

  • 1 centimetres (1 cm) = 10 millimetres
  • 1 decimetre (1 dm) = 10 centimetres (decimetres are very rarely used)
  • 1 metre (1m) = 1000 millimetres
  • 1 metre = 100 centimetres
  • 1 Kilometre (1km) = 1000 metres

Mass/Weight

  • 1 gram (1 g) = 1000 milligrams
  • 1000 grams = 1 Kilograms (1 Kg)
  • 1000 kilograms = 1 tonne

Area

  • 1 square centimetre (1 cm²) = 100 square millimetres (100 mm²)
  • 1 square metre (1 m²) = 10,000 cm²
  • 1 square metre (1 m²) = 1,000,000 mm²
  • 1 hectare (1 ha) = 10,000 m²
  • 1 square kilometre (1km²) = 1,000,000 m²
  • 1 km² = 100 ha

Imperial units

Length

  • 1 foot (1’)= 12 inches (12’’)
  • 1 yard ( 1 yd) = 3 feet
  • 1 yard = 36 inches
  • 1 mile (1 m) = 1760 yd

Mass/Weight

  • 16 ounces (16 oz) = 1 pound (1 lb)
  • 1 stone = 14 lb
  • 1 hundredweight (1 cwt) = 8 stone
  • 1 cwt = 112 lb
  • 1 ton = 20 cwt
  • 1 ton = 160 stones
  • 1 ton = 2240 lb

Conversions

  • 1 m² = 1.1960 yd²
  • 1m² ≈ 1.2 yd²
  • 1 yd² = 0.8361 m²
  • 1 yd² ≈ 0.8 m²

Estimating Quantities

  • 1 m3of subbase (dolomite) weights approximately 2 tonnes
  • Soil bulks up by about 150% when it is dug out so for every 4 m3 you dig out will fill a standard 6 m3 builders skip
  • 10 tonnes of subbase will take one man with a wheelbarrow and shovel about a day to shift.
  • 1 tonne of walling stone is sufficient for approximately 2.5 m² of a wall face.
  • For rubble/random walling every 1 tonne of walling stone uses ½ tonnes of soft sand and 5 no.(25kg)bags of cement.
  • 1 cwt or 50 Kg is approximately 8 shovel fulls.
  • A halve bag cement mixer holds about 90 litres of mixed motar or concrete.
  • 16 or 17 shovel fulls will fill a half bag mixer.

General garden tips

  • Label plants with plain plastic labels and write on them in pencil – because pencils do not use dyes they do not fade in strong sunlight and the labels can be cleaned and reused.
  • To tie a plant to a support cut off a short length of soft garden string, tie it around the support with a single knot and then tie the two ends of the knot around the stem with a
    double knot but leave space for the plant stem to grow.
  • To keep you hands warm wear a pair of thin warm knitted gloves next to your skin and then a pair of hard-wearing plastic (nitrile) gloves over them. It may seem cumbersome but it works very well.
  • To sow very fine seed mix it with very fine dry sand to bulk it up and so you can see where you have sown the seeds.
  • Machines like vibrating plates used to compact hardcore only compact down to a depth of 150mm (6 inches) and so if building up levels with hardcore spread 150mm, compact it then repeat the
    process until the desired level is reached.