Bond, English

This is one of the commonest method of constructing a brick wall which is more than ½ a brick thick and consists of alternating courses of heads and stretchers.

English bond brickwork
English bond brickwork

Taxonomic rank

This relates to the level within the hierarchy of plant names. The series of taxa for botany are set out in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants. Not all plants have an entry for every taxa and above the level of genus there is often a great degree of disagreement as to what belongs where. The important thing is that any plant can be identified by its genus and below.

 

Taxonomic rank

Kingdom

Subkingdom

Division

Subdivision

Class

Subclass

Superorder

Order

Suborder

Family

Subfamily

Tribe

Subtribe

Genus

Subgenus

Section

Subsection

Series

Subseries

Species

Subspecies

Variety

Subvariety

Form

Subform

(The principal taxa or in bold)

Taxonomy

This is the process of classifying things into groups, and in biology placing them within a hieratical system of classification. It is the study of how living things fit into system of how we name them.

Family

This is a group of closely related genera and the names should be written in italics (or underlined) and start with a capital letter. The names of plant families should end in the letters –aceae; but some long established names which do not have this ending are still used, all be it with standardised alternatives used in parallel.

International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants

The International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) lays down a set of rules in an attempt to standardise the way plants produced or selected by humans, as opposed to wild plants, are named. It is in effect a supplement to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN).  The first edition of the code was published in 1953 with the hope of applying some order to the naming of cultivated plants and in 1988 Hortax, a committee if plant taxonomists, was set up to supervise its continued development. The most recent edition, the 8th, was published in 2009.

Enzymes

These are catalysts which drive and control all the processes in living things. These are proteins just like muscle and hair and work as a result of their complex structure. Catalysts are something which causes a chemical reaction to occur but remain unchanged by the reaction so that it can repeatedly act on the same reaction.

Organic matter

This is the part of the soil which is made up from partly decomposed plant material or material which can beaded to soil to increase the amount of soil organic matter. It is very important as a reserve of nutrients and in the structure of the soil. Typical sources include peat, compost, farmyard manure and leaf mould. Except for peat soils, mixing additional organic matter into a soil will improve it.