The International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) lays down a set of rules in an attempt to standardise the way plants produced or selected by humans, as opposed to wild plants, are named. It is in effect a supplement to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). The first edition of the code was published in 1953 with the hope of applying some order to the naming of cultivated plants and in 1988 Hortax, a committee if plant taxonomists, was set up to supervise its continued development. The most recent edition, the 8th, was published in 2009.
This may not seem an obvious choice to include in this list and retailing at about £38 for a paperback it is not exactly cheap; but it does plug a very important gap. This book provides an accessible explanation of the often confusing technical terms used to describe plants. These are words used in botanical and horticultural books and other literature to describe plants and their characteristics. Their use causes considerable confusion and, sadly, puts off many; but are vital to help describe plants in an unambiguous way. The result is that many plant descriptions rely on words which make no sense to most people or very specific uses of words with much broader colloquial means. Frustrating as this is the accurate naming and description of plants would be impossible without them; as they allow the necessary degree of precision when trying to describe the difference between plants.
To achieve this, the book is divided into two sections; the first provides a list of words with a brief explanation of the meaning and cross references to the appropriate illustration in the second section. This second section justifies the large size of the book: being A4 in size. This is a selection of clear black and white line drawings illustrating the many terms. Most books attempting to describe this with illustrations rely on photographs, but such a technique could never achieve the clarity that these accomplish.
While of limited use to many people, and hence the publishers high price, anyone serious about understanding plants and there descriptions would do well to get hold of a copy. This is not the sort of book you are going to sit and read it is one you are going to find you are repeatedly pulling down of your shelves to refer to.
Paths need a purpose. They have to take you somewhere. Of course this journey is not necessarily a physical one; many of the greatest journeys are ones of the mind. The upshot of this is that before “putting a path in” you must first ask the question – what is the path for? This in most cases will be to provide a means of getting from one place to another. For example, the front gate to the front door but it can equally well be to lead the eye to a view.
The commonest type of path in a garden is intended to provide a clean dry route between two regularly used parts of the garden; this could be the entrance and the front door, back door and the garage or the patio doors and the patio. This sort of path needs to be as direct in its route as possible, or people will forever be cutting corners bringing mud onto it and it will be irritating to all its users. It also needs to be reasonably wide so that anything that needs to be carried down, such as shopping, can be done so as easily as possible. Finally it needs to be all weather, durable and if things like bikes are to be ridden down it solid.
Where a path is of lesser importance its width can be reduced, and if a minor path branches off from the main one a reduction in width can be a useful visual indicator. It helps to show people where you want them to go; if you are taking people on a journey they need some directions. Curves can also play an important roll in guiding the visitor. A clear straight path allows you to easily see the intended destination, such as the front door, hurrying the walker along. In contrast, a gently meandering path slows the walker down and a hidden destination invites exploration. But such a path to nothing will lead to disappointment. You want to find a hidden view not the compost bins!
Finally there are the paths that lead the eye not the feet. Where you want to draw the eye to a feature, be it an ornament, view or part of the garden not yet reached, a path leading to it will draw the eye to it. The path need not be one you can actually walk down and it may on occasion be an advantage if it is not.
At worst the garden path can be the source of wasted effort and frustration but at its best it can enhance the whole experience of being in the garden. The garden path, used well, can be a vital component in how a garden is viewed and perceived: guiding the visitor through the garden in a controlled manner.
Buddleja davidii Franch.is a popular garden shrub which has escaped cultivation to become established as a naturalised plant in the wild, where it can often be found on waste ground around towns and cities. It will grow happily in most garden soils and can even be seen growing out of cracks in masonry on buildings. It does prefer a sunny position as none of the buddlejas do well in shade. It grows well in even poor soil sending up long arching branches which are topped by the flowers in ranged in a cyme in late summer. Being a late flowering shrub it responds to early spring pruning and when pruned hard in March it produces far more flowers. These flowers give it its common name of butterfly bush as there strong scent is irresistible to butterflies.
Its ease of cultivation and natural variability has lead to a host of named varieties being selected and introduced varying from white through to purples and very dark blues. The RHS plant finder currently lists 121 different ones, including some which are forms of Buddleja x weyeriana – a hybrid between B. davidii and B. globosa.
The genus Buddleja L. was named by Carl Linnaeus in ‘Species Plantarum’, naming it after the Reverend Adam Buddle but of reasons unknown he spelt it with a “j” when strictly speaking it should be spelt with an “i”. This has lead to considerable confusion over the
years but as he repeatedly spelt it this way that is how it should be spelt. The only Buddleja known to Linnaeus was B. Americana L.which William Houstoun had sent back to Europe from the Americas and even then the spelling was causing confusion as in one of his illustrations he spelt it incorrectly both times even though he attributes the naming to Linnaeus. The species B. davidii itself was first sent back to Europe from China by the French Catholic missionary Armand David having found it in August of 1869 and Adrien René Franchet working in the herbarium of the natural history museum in Paris published a description of it in 1887 naming it in after the discoverer.
Species Plantarum by Carl Linnaeus
Hillers Manual of Trees and Shrubs
Excursion flora of the British Isles by Clapham et al
Nouvelles Archives Du Muséum D’Histoire Naturelle series 2
Reliquiae Houstounianae sive Plantarum in America meridionale … Collectarum Icones by William Hostoun
The International Plant Names Index (2012). Published on the Internet http://www.ipni.org [accessed 12th December 2012]
Tropicos, botanical information system at the Missouri Botanical Garden – www.tropicos.org [accessed 12th December 2012]
The Royal Horticultural Society Horticultural Database’, available at www.rhs.org.uk [accessed 12th December 2012]
This is a short collection of notes on the dimensions of a private drive.
- These are for guidance only and should be checked before being used.
- Local regulations and restrictions may apply and you should check before starting any work.
- The drive entrance should only be at the verge crossing.
- The verge crossing will have lowered curbs for the vehicles to get onto the road.
- New or changed verge crossings will normally require permission from the council highways and planning departments.
- Verge crossings must be constructed to special specifications.
- Verge crossings must be constructed by approved contractors.
- Ideally a drive should be 3.2 metres wide (or 2.6 metres if there is a separate footpath).
- If you are putting gates on a drive opening onto a busy drive you may have to set them back 5 metres from the edge of the highway to allow a vehicle to pull safely off the road before needing the gates opening.
- Check you can see clearly from the car driving seat when you pull out of the driveway.
- Any water on the drive must not drain onto the highway, but must be disposed of on site.
- Long drives need special considerations.
- Bends need to be wider to allow vehicles to turn.
- Oil delivery vehicles may only have 30 metre long delivery hoses.
- Oil delivery vehicles are typically 7.2 metres long by 2.6 metres wide and weigh 18 tonnes.
- LPG delivery vehicles need to get to within 25 metres of the fill valve.
- The fire brigade need to get their vehicles to within 45 metres of the house.
The Yew tree is an easily recognisable plant of gardens and the countryside, being one of the few native British plants to be widely grown as an ornamental plant. It is a very adaptable plant growing in most situations with the exception of water logged ground and it responds very well to cutting. This, with its dense evergreen foliage has made a very popular material for hedging and topiary. It is also said it is slow growth is an advantage as it reduces the amount of cutting needed but it is not nearly as slow as is sometimes made out. Young plants can make 20 to 30 cm of growth a year; only slowing with age, as we all do!
Many selections have been made of Yew including fastigiated and variegated ones but it is still at its most impressive as a green hedge where it does an excellent job of defining spaces and providing a foil to the more colourful occupants of the garden. If planting it as a hedge make sure to prepare the site well, necessary with any hedge, and make sure the soil drains freely; even if this means installing drainage. Its dense evergreen foliage forms a very long lived hedge even in the shade and it has been said a yew hedge has a longer working life than a brick wall. The other advantage over a brick wall is its adaptability; creating a new opening in a wall is difficult and will always show up while with a yew hedge a saw and hedge clippers is all that is needed. Once the new opening is made the plants will soon break away as it happily forms new shoots from the old wood and so heal the wound made.
It is remarkably good at growing away from old wood, I’ve seen yew trees cut down to ground level and shoot away from the stump. Hawthorn is the only other plant I know with such a strong regenerative ability. This is a very un-conifer like characteristic, but yews are not very conifer like though there appears know doubt that it should be classed as one.
Though now the yews are seen mainly as garden plants; it has been an important plant to humans for a long time. The Yew combines great long levity with a valuable wood which was prized was making bows, the most valuable weapon for most of human history. The ancient Greeks called the yew τόξο (or toxo) and the Romans called the yew taxus. As with any plant with such an important and long history with humanity a lot of superstitions have grown up around it, and this can be seen in its importance to druids and its presence in church yards. The Fortingall Yew at over 2000 years old is believed to be the oldest tree in Britian and grows in the churchyard of the village Fortingall in Perthshire.
In 1753 Linnaeus named the Yew Taxus baccata L. in the second volume of “Species plantarum” the Taxus from the Latin for yew and the baccata from the Latin for berry after the distinctive red fleshy arils which enclose the black seed and look like berries. It is only this red fleshy fruit-like part of the yew which is not poisonous as all other parts of the plants can kill humans if sufficient is eaten. Yew exists as separate male and female plants and so these colourful arils are only found on the female plants. The species Taxus baccata can be found as both male and female plants its cultivars will be only one sex and this should be considered when choosing one.
With drives, probably more than any other thing in gardens, the most important thing is it actually functions as the drive. No mater how nice it may look if it does work as a drive it is a waste of money. As ever there has to be some compromises, you may what a turning circle in your drive but they need an awful lot of space. First you need to decide how many vehicles you are going to what to park on the drive and do you need to be able to pull onto the drive, turn around and then drive back out. You also need to consider the order the vehicles will be needed, ideally you are not going to want to be constantly moving vehicles around just to get one particular one out. Last but not least you need to consider access to garages and house doors and how much of your garden you what to make into the drive.
Now look at what space you’ve got. An average car needs a space of 2.4 metres by 4.8 metres to park on and this doesn’t include space for manoeuvring it. Make a sketch and some vehicle sized pieces of card and try moving them about on the sketch, allowing for how they are going to swing out when turning. At this point you are going to have to make some compromises so consider what is important. Once you feel comfortable with the layout of your drive mark it out in the garden as you plant to have it and actually try it out. It is far easier to change now than later.
You are almost ready to construct your drive but before you start checking the cost of materials it is important to consider if planning permission is needed. The pressure for off road parking has lead to more and more gardens being paved over and while this does get cars off the sides of roads it means the rain that would soak into the front gardens now runs off. In response to this the government decided to bring in planning controls to cover non-porous paving in front gardens. Further details can be found on the government’s planning portal here. Planning rules are complex and special rules can apply in many situations so a 5 minute phone call to you local planning office at this point can save a great deal of trouble later. What ever you do don’t try to emulate the Ostrich!
. Planning rules are complex and special rules can apply in many situations so a 5 minute phone call to you local planning office at this point can save a great deal of trouble later. What ever you do don’t try to emulate the Ostrich!
With the vast range of possible paving materials it can feel a bit daunting when you first starting looking at paving materials. To try to reduce the selection down to a more manageable size, it is well to consider the practicalities imposed on you by what you are planning to use the paving for. You can then check how much of each type you are hoping to use, compare the costs of using different materials and if need adjust your plans.
Though there is considerable over lap; the uses for paving in a garden can be divided into four main categories: drives, patios, paths and utility areas.
When choosing a material for a drive the first consideration must be what will
happily withstand having a car regularly driven over it and parked on it. The second consideration, is that for many people it will be the first thing visitors see of there home. On the other hand though; it also spends a lot of time hidden under a car. Once you have eliminated the impractical options the chose comes down to cost and personal preference. Please note if you paving an area of you front garden planning permission may be needed.
Where as a drive is something you park a car on, a patio can be a major feature of a garden and so your budget should try to reflect that. The important thing is that it forms an attractive feature and not a slab of paving.
The idea of a garden path is as old as the garden itself, but a path has to have a purpose.
And that will influence the materials used. If the path for instance is going to be in a vegetable, where you are stepping on and off the path onto the bare soil you are going to have problems if you use gravel . Every time to step from one to the other soil and gravel will be transferred from one to the other; ending up with a muddy path you can’t clean. On the other hand an informal border winding along the edge a border is going to be difficult to achieve with square and rectangular flags and runs the risk of looking messy if its full of cut flags.
Most gardens have some area dedicated to the necessary but unattractive bits of a garden where things such as the shed live. Here the importance has to be the functionality of the material. Something that is cheap, durable and easy to clean.
One of the classic garden plants for shade Fatsia japonica is much admired for its large, glossy, evergreen leaves and easy temperament. It grows happily in any reasonable garden soil and does particularly well in shade, though not so well in dry shade. It is also tolerant of a maritime garden though its large leaves will need some shelter from strong winds. The large fleshy leaves evoke the image of lush tropical rain forests but the plant is reliably hardy, though the result of crossing it with ivy produces the less hardy x Fatshedera lizei. Quickly forming a medium sized shrub with flowers borne on the end of the shoots. The flower buds and white flowers look a lot like a scaled up version of Ivy flowers, appearing in autumn. This late flowering means though the buds are reliably formed in the UK the flowers are often damaged by frost.
Known by a variety of common names including Japanese aralia, castor oil plant, fatsi, fig-leaf palm and glossy-leaved paper plant; F. japonica was originally described by Carl Peter Thunberg in 1780. This followed his trip to Japan where it grows wild and he named it Aralia japonica. It was re-named in 1854 by Joseph Decaisne and Jules Émile Planchon, two botanists working in France. They took it out of they genus Aralia and created the new genus Fatsia for it; so the name is now Fatsia japonica (Thunb.) Decne. & Planch.
In the wild Fatsia japonica is found from central Japan south along the Japanese islands almost to Taiwan and in South Korea. It is sometimes described as a monotypic genus, meaning that there is only one species init, but in fact there is at least two other species of Fatsia, Fatsia oligocarpella Koidz. and Fatsia polycarpa Hayata.
It was introduced to western horticulture in 1838 and though the plain green Fatsia japonicais the one most often seen in gardens others are available and the variegated form Fatsia japonica ‘Variegata’ which has splashes of white on the leaves is worth looking out for.
The trick when designing your patio is to make it blend into the surrounds while adding to them. To do this you are free to use every trick in the book. You can use materials which contrast with their surrounding or complement them but care should be taken when trying to match materials as a bad match can be the worst scenario. Nor should you restrict yourself to just one material as mixing in an additional material is a very good way to break up areas of paving and differentiation between different areas. Just don’t over do it!
Below I’ve put together a table of most of the paving/drive materials currently available, the list though is not exhaustive. The cost column is really only to give a very broad indication of the relative expense involved in using different ones The exact cost would depend on many factors including site conditions and how much if any of the work was undertaken on a DIY basis.
|Plain concrete flags||Low to medium||
|Coloured concrete flags||Low to medium||
|Buget riven flags||Low to medium||
|Premium riven flags||Medium||
|Imported stone flags||Medium||
|Block paving||Medium to high||
|New sandstone flags||High||
|Reclaimed sandstone flags||Very high||
|Mosaics||High to very high||
|Sandstone crazy paving||Medium||
|Pattern impressed concrete||Medium||