# Tips

## Units of Measurement

### Metric units

#### Length

• 1 centimetres (1 cm) = 10 millimetres
• 1 decimetre (1 dm) = 10 centimetres (decimetres are very rarely used)
• 1 metre (1m) = 1000 millimetres
• 1 metre = 100 centimetres
• 1 Kilometre (1km) = 1000 metres

#### Mass/Weight

• 1 gram (1 g) = 1000 milligrams
• 1000 grams = 1 Kilograms (1 Kg)
• 1000 kilograms = 1 tonne

#### Area

• 1 square centimetre (1 cm²) = 100 square millimetres (100 mm²)
• 1 square metre (1 m²) = 10,000 cm²
• 1 square metre (1 m²) = 1,000,000 mm²
• 1 hectare (1 ha) = 10,000 m²
• 1 square kilometre (1km²) = 1,000,000 m²
• 1 km² = 100 ha

### Imperial units

#### Length

• 1 foot (1’)= 12 inches (12’’)
• 1 yard ( 1 yd) = 3 feet
• 1 yard = 36 inches
• 1 mile (1 m) = 1760 yd

#### Mass/Weight

• 16 ounces (16 oz) = 1 pound (1 lb)
• 1 stone = 14 lb
• 1 hundredweight (1 cwt) = 8 stone
• 1 cwt = 112 lb
• 1 ton = 20 cwt
• 1 ton = 160 stones
• 1 ton = 2240 lb

## Conversions

• 1 m² = 1.1960 yd²
• 1m² ≈ 1.2 yd²
• 1 yd² = 0.8361 m²
• 1 yd² ≈ 0.8 m²

## Estimating Quantities

• 1 m3of subbase (dolomite) weights approximately 2 tonnes
• Soil bulks up by about 150% when it is dug out so for every 4 m3 you dig out will fill a standard 6 m3 builders skip
• 10 tonnes of subbase will take one man with a wheelbarrow and shovel about a day to shift.
• 1 tonne of walling stone is sufficient for approximately 2.5 m² of a wall face.
• For rubble/random walling every 1 tonne of walling stone uses ½ tonnes of soft sand and 5 no.(25kg)bags of cement.
• 1 cwt or 50 Kg is approximately 8 shovel fulls.
• A halve bag cement mixer holds about 90 litres of mixed motar or concrete.
• 16 or 17 shovel fulls will fill a half bag mixer.

## General garden tips

• Label plants with plain plastic labels and write on them in pencil – because pencils do not use dyes they do not fade in strong sunlight and the labels can be cleaned and reused.
• To tie a plant to a support cut off a short length of soft garden string, tie it around the support with a single knot and then tie the two ends of the knot around the stem with a
double knot but leave space for the plant stem to grow.
• To keep you hands warm wear a pair of thin warm knitted gloves next to your skin and then a pair of hard-wearing plastic (nitrile) gloves over them. It may seem cumbersome but it works very well.
• To sow very fine seed mix it with very fine dry sand to bulk it up and so you can see where you have sown the seeds.
• Machines like vibrating plates used to compact hardcore only compact down to a depth of 150mm (6 inches) and so if building up levels with hardcore spread 150mm, compact it then repeat the
process until the desired level is reached.